Adam Jaffe is a professor emeritus of economics at Brandeis University and chair of the National Academies Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy. His expertise is in industrial organization; technological change and innovation; the economics of science; and environmental economics. He was previously Co-Chair of The OECD Global Science Forum Experts’ Group on “Effective Operation of Competitive Research Funding Systems.” He is currently an editor for research policy and coordinator of the National Bureau of Economic Research Innovation Information Initiative (“I 3”). He is the author of two books, Innovation and its Discontents and Patents, citations, and innovations: A window on the knowledge economy. He holds an S.B. in chemistry and S.M. in technology and policy from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University.